A pulley is a wheel on an axle or shaft that is designed to support movement and change of direction of a taut cable or belt, or transfer of power between the shaft and cable or belt. In the case of a pulley supported by a frame or shell that does not transfer power to a shaft, but is used to guide the cable or exert a force, the supporting shell is called a block, and the pulley may be called a sheave.
Pulleys are powerful simple machines. They can change the direction of a force, which can make it much easier for us to move something. If we want to lift an object that weighs 10 kilograms one meter high, we can lift it straight up or we can use a pulley, so we can pull down on one end to lift the object up